Russian émigré officers and their families at leisure - Serbia 1922.

 

Wars are less about destructive hardware or other imaginative ways of extermination – they're all about destroying the fabric of society and family ties. The Bolshevik Revolution and Russia's Civil War literally cast overboard several generations of educated people, and those who made it to safer havens were considered lucky to survive.

While Dr Zhivago's characters were fictitious, the real victims were millions – there were to be found on Turkish islands, on the pavements of the Balkan cities, in the libraries of Prague and European universities, most of them cherishing their dreams of reaching France, yet slowly dissolving into the societies of their new host countries. Hundreds of thousands of Russian émigrés settled down in 1919-1920 in Serbia and Bulgaria. In late 1921, in a few days only, 9330 Russian émigrés disembarked from 4 ships in the Bulgarian ports of Varna and Burgas.

Moscow's new rulers ruthlessly obliterated even the memories of their own educated exiles, shunning any reference of them that differed from the 'class enemy'. Few visual memories of the 'White Russians' have survived, mainly outside Russia and Ukraine.

Published in Red Square

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© Velislav Radev

Published in Photo Gallery Bulgaria

 

9th October 1934. A Bulgarian citizen assassinates King Alexander I of Yugoslavia in Marseille, one of the earliest terrorist attacks in France of the 20th Century. Аlso killed was one of Europe's most distinguished politicians, the French Foreign Minister and ex Prime Minister, Louis Barthou. The assassin, Vlado Chernozemski, was himself killed straight afterwards.

Chernozemski was a conspirator who saw himself as a Macedonian revolutionary. He was born Velichko Kerin in 1897 in the village of Kamenitsa in south western Bulgaria, and joined the Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization IMRO in 1922.

In 1928 Chernozemski was sentenced to death for murder, but was granted amnesty in 1932. He was responsible for the murder of yet another Macedonian activist on the order of IMROs leader Ivan Mihailov.

Chernozemski was said to have planned to enter the League of Nations in Geneva and blow himself up as a sign of protest against the League's  failure to act over the situation in Vardar-Macedonia (then part of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia).

Until May 1934 the IMRO had de facto control of Bulgaria's south western part, raised "taxes" and acted as a state within a state, with the unofficial support of the political and military establishment in Sofia. The IMRO also established close links with Mussolini's Italy and with the Croatian Ustasha (Ustaše) fascist movement, sharing what they saw as a common enemy in the Kingdom of Yugoslavia.

During the 1920s and 1930s numerous assassinations were carried out by IMRO across Europe and in Yugoslavia. Often the logistics were organised by Croat supporters who were more worldly and experienced in travelling through Europe than IMRO's agents. Croats usually provided forged passports, escort and shelter, like they did in Marseille in October 1934. The assassination in Marseille is still not included in the school curriculum in Bulgaria.

King Alexander was buried in the Memorial Church of St. George in the Oplenac Royal Mausoleum, near the town of Topola. This newsreel shows King Alexander's widow, the Queen consort Maria of Yugoslavia (the daughter of Queen Marie of Romania) and Alexander's 11-year son Peter, later King Peter II Karadjordjevic.

Also seen here is Hitler's deputy Hermann Goering in conversation with Marshal Pétain, then France's Minister of War. In the next shot is Prince Kiril of Bulgaria. King Boris III, who had shown King Alexander around his royal palaces in Bulgaria only a few days earlier, (28-30 September) expressed condolences, but sent to the funeral his younger brother.

9 октомври 1934, пристанището на Марсилия, Франция. Български гражданин, Владо Черноземски, застрелва крал Александър І на Югославия. Убит е и един от най-почитаните европейски политици, външният министър на Франция и бивш министър председател Луи Барту, далеч от балканската политика и аспирации. Атентаторът е убит незабавно.

Владо Черноземски ("Шофьора") е конспиратор, който се възприема като борец в полза на българска кауза в Македония. Роден Величко Димитров Керин на 19 октомври 1897 в село Каменица, сега част от Велинград. През 1922 той се влючва във Вътрешната македонска революционна организация ВМРО.

През 1928 година Черноземски е осъден на смърт за убийството през 1924 на народния представител и левичарски македонски активист Димо Хаджидимов, но през 1932 година е пуснат на свобода при амнистия. Владо Черноземски е отговорен и за убийството през 1930 в София на македонския деец Наум Томалевски по нареждане на водача на ВМРО Ванче Михайлов.

Черноземски говори за желанието си да влезе в сградата на Обществото на народите в Женева и се самовзриви. С този си акт той иска да обърне внимание към бездействието на организацията-предшественик на ООН по повод на обстановката във Вардарска Македония (тогава част от Кралство Югославия).

През 20-те и 30-те години на ХХ век, освен в България, ВМРО провежда многобройни атентати в Западна Европа и особено в Югославия. Най-често подготовката се поема от хърватски активисти. Те обикновено осигуряват фалшиви паспорти, ескорт и подслон, както преди конспирацията от 9 октомври 1934 на кея в Марсилия.

В България атентатът в Марсилия все още не се изучава в училище.

Published in Bulgaria